The Paris Agreement has an „upward“ structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are „top down“, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an „executive agreement, not a treaty.“ Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  This article will begin to compare the historical treatment of adaptation, loss and damage with mitigation in international climate change negotiations. The article will then analyze the treatment of adaptation, loss and damage in the Paris Agreement. 102 Faced with strong opposition from many states to the inclusion of a „commitment to be achieved“, the NDCs can, contrary to a proposal by Jorge Vinuales, The Paris Climate Agreement: An Initial Examination, Part II, EJIL: TALK! (February 8, 2016), on www.ejiltalk.org/the-paris-climate-agreement-an-ini-tial-examination-part-ii-of-iii/. 54 Vienna Convention on Treaty Law, Art.
2, paragraph 1, under a), 23 May 1969, 1155 UNTS 331 (definition of the treaty as an „international convention between states in writing and by international law), . whatever its particular name“).  Kathleen Mogelgaard – Heather McGray, When Adaptation Is Not Enough: Paris Agreement recognizes „Loss and Damage,“ World Res. Inst. (December 24, 2015), www.wri.org/blog/2015/12/when-adaptation-not-enough-paris-agreement-recognizes „loss-and-damage.“ The aim of the agreement is to reduce global warming described in Article 2 and to „improve“ the implementation of the UNFCCC: The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  40 For example, the text distributed in the middle of last week had only about 50 brackets, compared to the nine hundred brackets in the text that the ADP sent to ministers earlier this week. You will find in the Paris Agreement a follow-up of the parentheses in successive draft negotiations. ORG in parisagreement.org (the last visit took place on 15.04.2016). The Paris Agreement (the Paris Agreement)  is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and was signed in 2016.